Amino Acids

Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

Amino acidAbbr.Amino acidAbbr.
Alanine Ala,A Leucine Leu,L
Arginine Arg,R Lysine Lys,K
Asparagine Asn,N Methionine Met,M
Aspartic acid Asp,D PhenylalaninePhe,F
Cystein Cys,C Proline Pro,P
Glutamic acid Glu,E Serine Ser,S
Glutamine Gln,Q Threonine Thr,T
Glycine Gly,G Tryptophan Trp,W
Histidine His,H Tyrosine Tyr,Y
Isoleucine Ile,I Valine Val,V

All gene-coding amino acids are L-amino acids except for glycine.

L-alanine <jmol ala.pdb.gz 200 200></jmol>

D-amino acids in a cell

Gene-coding polypeptides and proteins consists of L-amino acids,synthesized by a ribosome. D-amino acids also exist in a many cell playing important roles. They are synthesized by NRP (Nonribosomal polypeptide synthesis) with a complex multifunctional enzyme.1)


Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) Branched-chain amino acids consist of isoleucine, leucine and valine that have branched-side chain. Since the BCAAs are abundantly found in skeletal muscle, they are often used for a supplement food. Isoleucine <jmol ile.pdb.gz 150 150></jmol> Leucine , , ,
Codon table Codon table * Codon tables -> The Genetic Codes (NCBI) Frequency of codon usage Kazusa DNA Research Institute published the statistical information of the frequency of codon usage. * <> * The genetic codes of an amino acid Serine can be coded with TCT/TCC/TCA/TCG/AGT/AGC (universal codon). But, the frequency of these codons are not equal each other. For example, the following table includes the frequency of codon usage for homo sapiens. You can find f… ,
Glycine Glycine A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. (MeSH) Name Glycine CAS No.56-40-6Molecular Formula Molecular Weight , ,
Isoleucine (2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid , , , ,
L-Selenocystein L-Selenocystein A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid. ,
Leucine Leucine Leu, L An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation. Name L-Leucine MeSH 68007930 CAS No.61-90-5Molecular Weight 131.17292 g/mol Molecular Formula XLogP -1.4 pK1(25℃)2.33pK2(25℃)9.74 , , , ,
Serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical … , , ,
Valine Valine Val, V A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Name L-Valine CAS No.72-18-4 , , , ,